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Johanna Bahnisch and August Dehne

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August Dehne

Johanne Caroline Baehnisch [or Johanna / Carolina] wed 30 March 1851 in Adelaide (described as "spinster from Liegnitz, aged 20, maidservant" in the marriage register) to Georg Friedrich August Dehne from Altenau, near Clausthal, Kingdom of Hannover. Liegnitz could mean the City or the district around the city.
Georg Friedrich August Dehne, b Altonau (printer's typo), arr. "George Washington" 1849 Adelaide, "Maid of Auckland" 1853 [sic] Melbourne, woodsman, well-digger, miner, butcher; died 2 May 1876 August Dehne came c1853 to Victoria with Caroline Benish/Baenisch and lived at Bendigo, Sandhurst.
He was Naturalised, but the record is not available online, in National Archives.
8 Children 1. Johanne Caroline Christiane DAHNE was born in Adelaide on the 18 April 1852, daughter of Georg Friedrich August DAHNE and Johanne Caroline BAHNISCH (near-perfect spelling!). Died 1908
2. August Henry Dehne 1854 #2880 - 1854 #3616 lived 11 months
3. Henrietta Bertha Dehne 1854 #7360 - 1937 #12307 aged 82
4. William August Dehne 6 June 1856 #10233 at Sandhurst, died 4 Dec 1930
5. Charles Henry Dehne 1858 #19315 - 1938 #13865 aged 80
6. Hermann August Dehne 1859 #21661 - 1931 #8023 aged 72
7. Emma Caroline Dehne 1861 #23114 - 1928 #7471 aged 66 (father called Dahue August)
8. Augustine Louisa Mary Ann Dehne 1865 #25612 - 1942 #24569 aged 76 died at Bendigo
4. William August Dehne 1856 #10233 wed 1888 #2412 to Sarah Hannah Munzel 1866 #18605 and lived at Sandhurst, Bendigo
5 Children 1. Lillian Carol Dehne 1889 #16266 wed 3 May 1915 to George Keir, 3 chn
2. William Frank Dehne 1891 #9382 wed 1926 to Catherine Eleanora Ormandy, 16 chn
3. Bertha Daisy Dehne 1893 #29098 wed 1919 to Herbert Seldon Heather, 3 chn
4. Edward August Dehne 1896 #960 wed 1921 to Hazel Dorothy Cox, 2 chn
5. Harry Norman Dehne 1898 #8693 wed Mary 'Polly' Keir, 4 chn
6. Ethel Mary Dehne 1900 wed 1924 to Arthur Reginald Peace, 5 chn
7. Arthur Norman Dehne 1902 wed 1924 to Daphne Emily May Hoy 1902-1985, 3 chn 8. herbert Roy Dehne 1905 wed 1935 to Violet Agnes Helms, 2 chn
9. Dorothy Hilda Dehne 1908 wed 1925 to Thomas Charles Cashmore 1902-1945, 3 chn
10. Hazel Dehne 1910 infant death
5. Charles Dehne 1858 #19315 wed 1884 #5649 to Jessie Burnet and lived at White Hills
1 Children 1. John Charles Dehne 1886
2. Walter August Dehne 1888 #25662 wed 1915 to Mary Elizabeth Berjesen 1892-1986
3. William Edward Dehne 1890 #37411 wed 1919 to Caroline Mathilda Peake, 3 chn
4, Marion Caroline Dehne 1892 #32072 wed 1920 to Albert Anquetil, 3 chn
5. Herman Harold Dehne 1894,"25298 - 1931
6. Bertha Dehne 1897 - 1930 #344 aged 33, wed Clive Leonard Hughes
7. Emma Caroline Dehne 1861 #23114 - 1928 aged 66, wed 1883 #3652 to William Edward Tilburn 1861 #10146 and lived at Numurkah, Yarrawonga, 3 chn to 1889

from on Sunday, 5 December, 2010
Hi, Elizabeth!
The "Godeffroy" - Left Hamburg: 2 Oct 1848. Reached open sea: 13 Oct, Arrived Melbourne's port: 13 Feb 1849, Arrived Port Adelaide: 1 March 1849 - this ship dropped off several hundred German immigrants at Hobsons Bay (Melbourne) and then moved on to Port Adelaide (Darragh and Wuchatsch published a magnificent book about this ship and its passengers in 1999).
Mrs Rosine/Rosina Baehnisch and the two children from her second marriage, Ernst Wilhelm Baehnisch and Caroline Baehnisch, joined Rosine's daughter from her first marriage, Mrs Christiane Kaesler nee Kuehn at Tanunda here in the Barossa. Wilhelm died in 1905 and is buried at Light Pass here in the Barossa. He was my great-great-grandfather. Caroline married August Dehne in Adelaide and then moved to Sandhurst (now Bendigo). The Baehnisches came from the Liegnitz District of Silesia Province, Prussia, since 1945 the Polish city of Legnica.
Based on various sources, Rosine (maiden surname unknown) was born around 1792, Christiane 1818, Caroline 1830 and Willi 4 Dec 1832 (Moettig, near Liegnitz City, Silesia, Prussia). We have never been able to track down Rosine's death in South Australia nor Victoria. Maybe it wasn't recorded; maybe she remarried and so was buried under her new husband's surname; maybe her name was mangled so much that it is unrecognizable in the Death Indexes. Any help in finding the final fate of Rosine would be much appreciated.
"Benish" is a Clerical Error with several dimensions. In Australia today it is spelt Bahnisch or Baehnisch and is pronounced "BAY-nish", just as Dehne is pronounced "DEEN", nothing like their original German pronunciations.
Rosina's Profession in Europe: cook in UNKNOWN house at Moettig [guess]. ("Cook" appears only on a Passenger List: does it mean she was 1) a housewife, 2) travelling without a husband, 3) hoping to get a job as a cook in Australia or 4) a professional cook in Europe ????)
The "Godeffroy" left Hamburg: 2 Oct. 1848 (because of cholera, the ship was officially quarantined at Stade (Hannover) on the Elbe River and storm damage forced it to put in at Plymouth, England, a port also suffering from cholera; possibly Rosina died of cholera). What do UNKNOWN sources at Hamburg and Stade say about the deaths on the "Godeffroy"?
Died: UNKNOWN date and place (probably Australia: frustratingly a computer gave me a list of all the Rosinas / Rosines who married or died in South Australia and Victoria but I can't say for sure whether one of them is our Rosina; none fit exactly the above facts).

The Baehnisches were not eligible for the NSW government bounty
From: "Noel Cameron" Wednesday, 8 December, 2010
Hi, Elizabeth!
My great-grandmother Eliza Marks was an Assisted Migrant, arriving Sydney in Feb 1836. So I am vaguely familiar with how the NSW Government sold land and then used the money to assist people to migrate from Europe to Australia. Eliza appears on the Bounty List and on the "Disposal" List. Today we would say "government subsidy" rather than "bounty". My great-great-grandparents, the Levingstons from Ireland, were also assisted migrants, arriving Sydney in 1840. (So was our present Prime Minister, Julia Gillard, a "Ten-Pound Pom".)
I GOOGLEd "Godeffroy 1849 bounty NSW" and was sent to the RootsWeb website and was presented with this interesting exchange of recent e-mails (edited by me for brevity): From: Elizabeth Date: Thu 16 Sep 2010
To Bob Moritz, Hello Bob,
Jenny thanks you for your offer, however the "Godeffroy" is not part of her project, which is:
The "Articles on German Ships" series: these only include the vessels that brought "Government Assisted German Families" (vinedressers) to NSW from 1849 to 1856 ...
The immigrants arriving per the "Godeffroy" did not comply with the regulations set down for "Government Assisted Immigrants to NSW". For details regarding these regulations please check the following source: Votes & Proceedings of the NSW Legislative Council 1848. pp. 205-220 Regulation of 7 April 1847, also published on 9 April 1847 in the Government Gazette no.32. pp. 399-400 (should be available at your State Library). If your ancestors arrived per the "Godeffroy" they were most likely recruited under the "DELIUS" venture: There were three ships that brought German immigrants to Melbourne in 1849 the "Godeffroy", "Wappaus" and "Dockenhuden". The "Godeffroy" immigrants were recruited from north eastern Germany by "Edward Delius" in the hope he would qualify for payment of the NSW Government Bounty. Edward Deluis took it upon himself without authority to engage immigrants in great haste; he failed to make application to the authorities in Sydney. As it turned out, very few immigrants arriving on the "Godeffroy" fitted the requirements of the Government Regulations of 7 April 1847, requiring (non-British) German men with skills not obtainable from Britain; also these men had to be married and not more than 50 years old.
The state of Victoria then separated from NSW and you can find reports of the mismanaged "Delius venture" in the correspondence reprinted in Historical Records of Australia vol.26.pp 662-713.
Also see: State Records of NSW, Immigration. Copies of letters sent to the Colonial Secretary re immigration to NSW 1841-1859, GGS 5248; (letters 1849) p 328, letter 49/301 dated 25 August 1849. Agent for Immigration to Colonial Secretary, respecting German immigrants with four enclosures (re immigrants eligible and "NOT" eligible for Bounty).
Also see: Jenny Paterson, "German Bounty Immigrants to NSW 1849-1856, papers from her address in Brisbane are published in "7th Australian Congress on Genealogy and Family History, Congress Papers Brisbane 1994. Jenny Paterson,"The employment of assisted German immigrants to NSW 1849-1856", published in "The Ancestral Researcher" vol. 20 no. 2 June 1997, journal of the "Heraldry & Genealogy Society of Canberra".
An excellent source for passengers arriving in Victoria is Thomas A. Darrah & Robert N Wuchatsch, "From Hamburg to Hobsons Bay: German Immigration to Port Phillip (Australia Felix) 1848-1851", published in association with the Wendish Heritage Society, Melbourne 1999 (this is a well researched publication). ... Happy reading and good luck with your research,

At 06:51 PM 13/09/2010, you wrote: G'day Jenny. Is the voyage of the Godeffroy in the article plan? Its voyage from Hamburg to Hobson's Bay and thence to Adelaide, departed Hamburg in 1848 and arrived in 1849. I have a shipping list and some details of the vessel, including a picture of it, if that would be of assistance. ... Regards Bob

This is how the Baehnisches came to Australia from "Germany": they did not fit the NSW Government Regulations and I simply don't know yet if they complied with the South Australian regulations. The details, with careful analysis, are in Darragh & Wuchatsch's book, which I do not have a copy of but which I first read in Nov 2000 and which I purchased as a gift for my Uncle Eric Bahnisch. Many academic and private studies have been published about how these "Germans" came to Australia Felix (Victoria). I know Delius inserted this ad in Rudolstadt's "Allgemeine Auswanderungs-Zeitung" (General Emigration Newspaper) on the 12 June 1848:

Nach Sued-Australien und Australia Felix werden von Hamburg im Monat Juni, August und October Expeditionen mit den Schiffen der J. C. Godeffroy u. Sohn stattfinden und Anmeldungen zur Ueberfahrt sind in portofreien Briefen zu machten bei Eduard Delius in Bremen oder beim Auswanderungsbuereau in Rudolstadt.

The Baehnisches sent their Anmeldungen (registrations) by post-free letter, as the Prussian State stuggled to regain absolute control after the March 1848 Revolution nearly toppled the Prussian monarchy. They left Hamburg on the 2 October.

Looking through my old Display Books, I noticed that I stumbled over Caroline Baehnisch on the 16 June 2001 when I was in the Lutheran Archives (then in Archer St, North Adelaide): I paid for a printout of all the Baehnisches in the Lutheran Archives Database -- and I noticed the 1851 marriage of Johanne [sic] Caroline Baehnisch in Adelaide. I had always thought that she had died on the voyage of the "Godeffroy" but here she was, marrying Georg Friedrich August DEHNE in the Scottish Church in Grenfell St, Adelaide City, with Lutheran Pastor Kapler (or Kappler) officiating. She was described as "spinster from Liegnitz". After that, research was relatively easy.

In the modern South Australian Marriages 1842-1916 Index, Caroline appears under "BACHNISCH Johanne [sic] Caroline" but the Search Engine would accept only "BACHNISH". In the modern PIONEER INDEX, VICTORIA 1836-1888, Caroline appears as "Johannah Caroline", "Johannah C" and "Caroline", surname of "BANISH, BACHNIS, BENSH, BAHNASCHE, BEAHINSCH, BARISH"; and August's 1876 death is recorded under the British version of his name, "George Frederick [the Given Name field is not big enough for the third and most important given name, August] DEHNE, son of G N [sic] Christi[an] DEHNE and Johanna Henri[etta] RIESEN, age 50, birthplace ALTE[NAU]". In the modern DEATH INDEX, VICTORIA 1921-1985, her children's deaths appear with "Caroline BEAMISH, Caroline UNKNOWN, Johanna Caroline BAEHNISCH, Jhnna Crline BACHNISCH, Unknown UNKNOWN and Carol BAENISCH". And their father appears as "DEHNE, DEHN and DAHUE [sic!]". These modern indexes are put together by volunteers who often have trouble reading the old handwriting, especially if the surname is unusual or foreign: for instance, BACHNISCH probably is in fact BAEHNISCH, since lower-case "e" looks like lower-case "c". When she died in 1908, the Index says she was the daughter of "(blank) BAENISCH and Unknown UNKNOWN". August and Caroline are buried in the White Hills Cemetery, Bendigo.

August Dehne arrived at Port Adelaide on the "George Washington" on the 2 March 1849 (the month after Caroline arrived at the same port on the "Godeffroy"): he was a woodsman (forestry worker) from Altenau (presumed by researchers to also be his birthplace but that is not necessarily so), aged 22. Altenau is in the Harz Mountains of central Germany, famous for its mines and infamous for its misery: from 1849-1855, the Hanoverian Government helped miners migrate overseas, as examined in the thesis of Renate Vollmer, University of Osnabrueck. August Dehne was naturalized as a British subject in 1862 when he was a butcher at Epsom, part of Sandhurst (Bendigo's official name back then). He said he had arrived in Victoria in 1853 on the "Maid of Auckland". He was probably wrong about the year since I looked in the Shipping Arrivals & Departures, Victorian Ports 1846-1855 (publ. 1987) and the "Maid of Auckland" shuttled between Adelaide and Melbourne several times in 1852 but not in 1853. Also on the 24 March 1852, Pastor Teichelmann reported that all but two men in his Adelaide congregation had gone to the Victorian goldfields, as mentioned in Adelaide's Bethlehem Lutheran Church's history book, published in 1997. Pastor Kapler had gone to the goldrushes, too. It's also possible August confused "zwei" (two) and "drei" (three): this is why "zwei" is often spelt and pronounced "zwo" in modern German.

Using microfiche, I viewed the original 1851 marriage record and she called herself Johanna [sic] Caroline Baehnisch, 20, maidservant, and she signed her name in excellent Cursive German Fraktur and used two dots over the "a". The Baehnisch siblings were well-educated. He said he was Georg Friedrich August Dehne, well-digger, 2nd son of Georg Heinrich Dehne (the middle initial "H" appears as mistaken "N" in the modern death index for 1876).

Somehow I found Frank Cusack's "BENDIGO: THE GERMAN CHAPTER" (1998), which documents the German community at Bendigo. Friedrich (later Frederick) Kraemer is there: a well-known hotelier in Bendigo, he was the witness at the Dehne-Baehnisch wedding in Adelaide in 1851 (I suggest he was possibly her employer). And there they are: Georg Friedrich August Dehne, b Altonau (printer's typo), arr. "George Washington" 1849 Adelaide, "Maid of Auckland" 1853 [sic] Melbourne, woodsman, well-digger, miner, butcher; Johanne [sic] Caroline Bahnisch (two dots over the "a"), her supposed birthyear of 1831, with no birthplace nor deathyear, married in 1851 (no place given); and their 6 children. The first child was August Henry 1854-65 (this is wrong since little Henry died in 1854 at the age of 11 months, mistaken by a modern researcher for 11 years). The Dehnes ("DEEN") have many descendents.

Pardon any Clerical Errors in this complex text! I know of no correspondence between Caroline Dehne in Bendigo and her brother Willi Baehnisch in Nurioopta, South Australia: he was an ultra-conservative God-fearing farmer; she was living in a fast-living, gold-worshiping city infused by British modernity and British culture.

Elizabeth, feel free to use any or all of this for your Victorian Pioneers website. It is as accurate as I can manage. I know some of the Dehnes are totally familiar with all of this. Maybe it will be read by someone in Bendigo who has inherited family documents or old photos which haven't seen the light of day for many decades.

From Noel.

Elizabeth Janson's web contributions
began 1st Nov, 1998.
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